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吴琪:盖洛和他翻译的中文俗语

长城随笔 wu 847次浏览 0个评论 扫描二维码

美国人威廉.埃德加.盖洛是长城探险第一人。他在1909年出版的《中国长城》中,我除了对书中的72张长城照片(包括:长城远景和近景、墙体、敌楼、关城等)赞叹不已之外,还对他收集中国谚语和成语数量,以及中翻英的“信达雅”也是崇拜万分。

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以下20个翻译句子是我最喜欢的:

识时务者为俊杰:A great man is one who knows the times.

先入为主:First impressions rule the mind.

门门有道,道道有门:Every sect has its truth and every truth has its sect.

礼多人不怪:Men are not offended by a little extra courtesy.

信者有,不信者无:To the believer it is a fact, to the unbeliever a fiction.

天下人管天下事:All human affairs are my affairs.

面由心生:An honest heart begets an honest face.

知人知面不知心:We know men’s faces, not their minds.

天下无难事,只怕有心人:There is nothing difficult under heaven, if men will only do it.

人无远虑,必有近忧:The man who takes no thought for the distant, has sorrow near at hand.

恭敬不如从命:Obedience is better than reverence.

富润屋,德润身:Wealth adorns the house, virtue the person.

治得了病,治不了命:A doctor may cure disease, but he cannot cure fate.

有其父必有其子:Like father like son.

到处不用钱,到处讨人嫌:Where no money is spent there no grace is gained.

好死不如赖活着:Better be alive and poor than rich and dead.

娶妻娶德,娶妾娶色:We wed a wife for her virtue, a concubine for her looks.

兵在精不在多:Soldiers depends on training not on numbers.

礼下于人,必有所求:When a man is over polite he has something to beg.

问道不吃亏:One does not lose by asking his way.

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        当年,盖洛试图用这些中国民族的智慧,让更多的西方人理解中国社会各阶层的伦理及心态;如今,我们可以在这些谚语和成语的翻译中体会到,盖洛对中国文化、风俗和习惯探究和理解的深度和广度。  

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  在《中国长城》英文版(和中文版)页眉中,每页都有一条中国谚语或成语,一共176条

1.对症下药:Adapt the remedy  to the disease.

2.众志成城:Men, not walls, make a city.

3.瓦匠多盖歪了房:Too many bricklayers make a lopsided house.

4.钱能通神:Money moves the gods.

5.皇家的刀快,不能杀无罪之人:The imperial sword, though sharp, cannot slay an innocent man.

6.欲得人像我,除非镜里寻:If you want to see every one like yourself, you must look in your glass.

7.两虎相争,必有一伤:When two tigers fight, one bust come to grief.

8.工欲善其事,必先利其器:The workman who would do good work must first sharpen his tools.

9.哀莫大于心死:No grief so great as for a dead heart.

10.没有金刚钻,不揽瓷器活:He who has no diamond should not undertake to cut glass.

11.礼多人不怪:Men are not offended by a little extra courtesy.

12.胳膊折在袖子里:Keep your broken arm inside your sleeve.

13.善恶之报,如影随行:The rewards of good and evil are like shadow and substance.

14.要叫人不知,除非己莫为:The only way to prevent people knowing it , is not to du it.

15.贪多嚼不烂:Don’t bite off more than you can chew.

16.饶人不是痴,过后得便宜:It is not foolish to forgive, good will come of it bye and bye.

17.小不忍则乱大谋:A little impatience spoils great plans.

18.没有不透风的墙:There is no fence that does not let the wind through.

19.人使奴闲死奴,奴使奴累死奴:A slave is the worst of masters.

20.阎王好见,小鬼难搪:It is easy to see the king of Hades, but not one of his imps.

21.无风草不动:The grass does not move when there is no wind.

22.一遭是情,两遭是例:The first time it is a favor, the second a rule.

23.饥饿中给一口,强如饱中给一斗:Better give a mouthful to the hungry than a bushelful to the well-fed.

24.寸金失了有处找,寸阴失了无处寻:A lost inch of gold may be found, a lost inch of time never.

25.重资财薄父母,不成人子:Who thinks much of wealth and little of father and mother is not a son.

26.泰山不却微尘:The great mountain does not reject the smallest dust.

27.马到临崖收缰晚,船到江心补漏迟:It is too late to rein in your horse when on the precipice, and to mend a leak when in mid-stream.

28.对驴弹琴,对瞽谈星:Playing the zither to an ass and talking astrology to the blind.

29.生死有命,富贵在天:Birth and death are decreed, wealth and honour are with God.

30.天下兴亡,匹夫有责:In the prosperity and decay of the state a common man has his share.

31.以责人之心责己,以爱己之心爱人:Rebuke yourself as you rebuke others; love others as you love yourself.

32.龙游浅水遭虾戏:A dragon floundering in shallow waters incurs the ridicule of shrimps.

33.妇有长舌,为戾之阶:A woman with a long tongue is a ladder of woe.

34.草地里说话,路上有人听:Words spoken in the fields, someone on the road hears.

35.见怪不怪,其怪自败:If you don’t wonder at the wonderful it ceases to be a wonder.

36.善门难开,善门难闭:The door of charity is hard to open and hard to shut.

37.和气生财:Amiability begets wealth.

38.识时务者为俊杰:A great man is one who knows the times.

39.骑虎难下:He has mounted a tiger and cannot get down.

40.种瓜得瓜,种豆得豆:Plant melons and you get melons, plant beans and you get beans.

41.先入为主:First impressions rule the mind.

42.小虾米来钓大鱼:Using a small shrimp to catch a big fish.

43.以己之心,测人之心:You may guess the minds of others by your own.

44.天无绝人之路:Heaven never cuts off a man’s way.

45.玉不琢,不成器:Jude unpolished does not make a gem.

46.上梁不正下梁歪:When the top beam is not level, the lower ones are lopsided.

47.是非只因多开口:Mischief all comes of much opening of the mouth.

48.一言既出,驷马难追:A word once spoken the fleetest horse cannot overtake it.

49.人见利而不见害,鱼见食而不见钩:Fish see the bait, but not the hook; men see the profit ,but not the peril.

50.门门有道,道道有门:Every sect has its truth and every truth has its sect.

51.明枪易躲,暗箭难防:It is easy to avoid a naked spear, but not a hidden sword.

52.人死如猛虎,虎死如绵羊:A dead man is terrible as a tiger, a dead tiger harmless as a lamb.

53.好人不长寿,祸害一千年:The good are short lived, the evil last a thousand years.

54.人算不如天算:The myriad schemes of men are not worth one scheme of God.

55.从善如登,从恶如崩:Being good is like climbing, being bad like falling.

56.好事不让人:In good works don’t yield place to others.

57.功到自然成:The work being adequate, the result is a matter of course.

58.一寸光阴一寸金:An inch of time is an inch of gold.

59.要饱家常饭,要暖粗布衣:It is homely fare that feeds and coarse cloth that warms.

60:尺璧非宝,寸阴是竞:A foot of jake is not precious, but an inch of time is a thing to be struggled for.

61.信者有,不信者无:To the believer it is a fact, to the unbeliever a fiction.

62.男儿无志,钝铁无钢:A boy without ambition is blunt iron without steel.

63.良言一句三冬暖:A kind word keeps warm for three winters.

64.一块臭肉满锅腥:One piece of bad meat makes the whole pot smell.

65.水深流去慢:Deep waters run slowly.

66.卖瓜的不说瓜苦,卖酒的不说酒薄:A melon seller never cries “bitter melons”, nor a wine seller “thin wine”.

67.没有梧桐树,招不了凤凰来:Without the dryandra you cannot allure the phoenix.

68.子不嫌父丑:A son is never disgusted with his father’s ugliness.

69.天下人管天下事:All human affairs are my affairs.

70.剪草不如除根:Cutting down a weed is not so good as uprooting it.

71.一言兴邦,一言丧邦:A word may make a state and a word may mar it.

72.面由心生:An honest heart begets an honest face.

73.说曹操,曹操到:Speak of Tsao Tsao and Tsao Tsao appears.

74.祸福无门,惟人自招:Happiness and misery are not fated but self-sought.

75.严以律己,宽以待人:Treat self severely, others leniently.

76.寸金难买寸光阴:An inch of gold cannot buy an inch of time.

77.咬人的狗不露齿:A biting dog not show his teeth.

78.忠臣不事二主,烈女不嫁二夫:A royal minister will not serve two dynastic kings, nor a virtuous woman wear two wedding rings.

79.有志者事竟成:Be resolute and the thing is done.

80.前有车,后有辙:when there is cart ahead there is a track behind.

81.知人知面不知心:We know men’s faces, not their minds.

82.帽子差不了一尺:Hats don’t differ by a foot.

83.你有千变万化,我有一定之规:You have a myriad tricks and turns, I, one settled plan.

84.天下无难事,只怕有心人:There is nothing difficult under heaven, if men will only do it.

85.人莫知其子之恶:A parent never known his son’s defects.

86.人无远虑,必有近忧:The man who takes no thought for the distant, has sorrow near at hand.

87.心如平原,走马易,放难收:The heart is like a race horse on a plain, easy to let go, hard to rein in.

88.当着矮子,别说短话:In the presence of a dwarf don’t use short words.

89.天无二日,民无二王:Heaven has no two suns, nor the people two kings.

90.远亲不如近邻:A near neighbor is better than a distant relative.

91.嘴上没毛,办事不牢:The hairless lip in managing affairs is apt to slip.

92.不慎于始,必悔于终:A careless beginning means a repentant ending.

93.画虎不成反为犬:He painted a tiger, but it turned out a cur.

94.不受磨,不成佛:Without sorrow none become saints.

95.常将有日思无日,莫到无时思有时:In days of plenty, think of days of poverty; don’t wait till days of poverty to think of days of plenty.

96.冰冻三尺,非一日之寒:Ice three feet thick is not frozen in a day.

97.恭敬不如从命:Obedience is better than reverence.

98.杯水车薪:A glassful of water cannot quench a cartful of burning grass.

99.巧妇难为无米之炊:The cleverest wife cannot make congee without rice.

100.学似逆水行舟,不进则退:Learning is like rowing up stream, not to advance is to drop back.

101.师傅引进门,修行在个人:A teacher can lead us into the porch, but culture depends on self.

102.有钱一条龙,无钱一条虫:With money you are a dragon, without it a grub.

103.淹死的是会水的:It is the good swimmer that gets drowned.

104.不受苦中苦,难为人上人:Without tasting the bitterest we never reach the highest.

105.兵可百年不用,不可一日不备:Soldiers may not be needed for a hundred years, but cannot be dispensed with a single day.

106.单丝不成线,孤树难成林:A single strand does not make thread, nor one tree a forest.

107.小钱不去,大钱不来:If the pennies do not go, the pounds will not come.

108.虎毒不食子:The fiercest tiger does not eat its own young.

109.垛泥匠不拜佛:An image maker never worships idols.

110.恶人自有恶人磨:There is always a rogue to rub a rogue.

111.过河拆桥:Destroying the bridge that carried us over.

112.勤能补拙:Diligence can make up for doltishness.

113.闲时不烧香,急时抱佛脚:When times are easy we don’t burn incense; but when stress comes we embrace the feet of Buddha.

114.天下老鸹一般黑:A crow is black the world over.

115.不可杀鸡问客:Don’t ask your guest if you may kill a fowl for hem.

116.白马红缨彩色新,不是亲者强来亲。一朝马死黄金尽,亲者如同陌路人。In prosperity strangers claim kin; in adversity kindred become strangers.

117.狗嘴里吐不出象牙来:You can’t get ivory out of a dog’s mouth.

118.富润屋,德润身:Wealth adorns the house, virtue the person.

119.福不独至,祸不单行:Bliss does not come alone, nor does woe walk single file.

120.虎父无犬子:A brave father breeds brave sons.

121.打狗看主人:In beating a dog have regard to its master.

122.治得了病,治不了命:A doctor may cure disease, but he cannot cure fate.

123.理直气壮:Right makes one bold.

124.养子不教,直如养驴:Bringing up a son without teaching is just like bringing up a mule.

125.星星之火,可以燎原:A single spark can burn a whole prairie.

126.会说的不如会听的:A good hearer is better than a good speaker.

127.螳螂捕蝉,黄雀在后:When the mantis catches the cicada he does not know that the oriole is just behind.

128.十个手指头,不能一般齐:The ten fingers cannot be all one length.

129.杀人可恕,情理难容:Murder may be condoned, but discourtesy never.

130.将相本无种,男儿当自强:Generals and ministers are not ready-born but self made.

131.远水救不了近火:Distant water cannot quench a near fire.

132.朽木不可雕也:Rotten wood cannot be carved.

133.有其父必有其子:Like father like son.

134.苛政猛于虎:An oppressive government is worse than a fierce tiger.

135.黄鼠狼单咬病鸭子:The stoat only bites the sick duck.

136.雨露是恩典,冰霜也是恩典:Rain and dew are mercies, so are ice and frost.

137.姜是老的辣:Old ginger is the most pungent.

138.人生不满百,常怀千岁忧:Men do not live a hundred years, yet harbour the griefs of a thousand.

139.到处不用钱,到处讨人嫌:Where no money is spent there no grace is gained.

140.白天不做亏心事,晚上不怕鬼叫门:Do no wrong by day and you will fear no demon knocking at your door by night.

141.临阵磨枪:Waiting for the battle before whetting your sword.

142.慢工出巧匠:Slow work makes a skilled workman.

143.君子一言,快马一鞭:A word is enough for a wise man, and a flick of the whip for a fleet horse.

144.手大捂不过天来:The biggest hand cannot hide the heavens.

145.飞得不高,跌得不重:When the flight is not high the fall is not heavy.

146.二人同心,黄土变金:When two men’s minds shall agree, common earth will golden be.

147.水流千条归大海:Water may run in a thousand channels, but all returns to the sea.

148.每一根草油一颗露珠儿:Each blade of grass has its own dew drop.

149.火到猪头烂,钱到公事办:With fire enough you can cook anything, with money enough you can do anything.

150.好死不如赖活着:Better be alive and poor than rich and dead.

151.老天爷饿不死瞎家雀儿:God does not starve the blind sparrow.

152.强将手下无弱兵:A good general has no bak soldiers.

153.车船店脚衙,无罪也该杀:Carters, boatmen, innkeepers,carriers and yamen runners though crimeless should be killed.

154.娶妻娶德,娶妾娶色:We wed a wife for her virtue, a concubine for her looks.

155.兵在精不在多:Soldiers depends on training not on numbers.

156.少壮不努力,老大徒悲伤:The grief of age over the neglect of youth is vain.

157.一文钱难倒英雄汉:One cash may overthrow a hero.

158.井里的蛤蟆锣大的天:To a frog in a well, heaven is only a sieve in size.

159.打着骡子马也惊:When the mule is beaten the horse is scared.

160.擒贼先擒王:In catching rebels first catch their king.

161.秀才不出门,便知天下事:A scholar without going outside his door knows everything under heaven.

162.有钱遮百丑:Money covers many sins.

163.羊羔虽美,难调众口:Lamb though sweet does not suit all taste.

164.人平不语,水平不流:Level water does not run, nor a contented man grumble.

165.菜里虫儿菜里死:The cabbage grub dies in the cabbage.

166.一勤天下无难事:Diligence overcomes all difficulties.

167.念完了经打和尚:Thrashing the priest when he has finished praying for you.

168.国乱思良将:When the state is in turmoil, men think of their able general.

169.礼下于人,必有所求:When a man is over polite he has something to beg.

170.明中施舍,暗里填还:Alms done openly will be repaid secretly.

171.少见多怪:He who has seen little, marvels much.

172.将在谋不在勇:Generalship consists in strategy not in courage.

173.临渴掘井:Waiting till you are thirsty before digging your well.

174.年怕中秋月怕半:The year fears the fall and the moon its waning time.

175.借酒消愁愁更愁:Wine does not relieve real sorrow.

176.问道不吃亏:One does not lose by asking his way.

(本文节选自“林赛一家子”,标题与文章内容均有删节,图文均来自林赛一家子)


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